Texas Cooking Logo

Virginia Rose

Production: -

by

Eggshell Georgian snapshot

Carry Me Back to Old Virginny

Designed by Homer Laughlin China's art director Frederick Rhead, Virginia Rose is one of HLC's elegant and most popular shapes. Over two hundred and fifty different patterns have been found on the Virginia Rose shape. Rhead originally described it: a "Rose Medallion a festoon shape", which ultimately grew into Virginia Rose. The name is in honor of W.E. Wells' granddaughter Virginia Rose Wells.

Homer Laughlin produced Virginia Rose from 1929 into the 1970s.

Below is a list of all the current Virginia Rose china pieces offered right now on eBay. Feel free to visit this page often to see what is for sale.

A partial list of the many patterns of Virginia Rose

  • Amherst VR420
  • Blue Bella and Rose
  • Blue Bonnet VR420
  • Armand Accessories
  • Armand One VR235
  • Armand Two VR257
  • Armand Three VR440
  • Bouquet W137
  • Colonial Couple
  • Colonial Kitchen
  • Columbine VR232
  • Daisies
  • Dixie Rose
  • Double Gold Band VR116
  • Elaine VR423
  • Evelyn VR256
  • Falls Beauty
  • Florets
  • Flowers " Filigree VR231
  • Flanders Poppy
  • Fluffy Rose VR128
  • Fluffy Rose VR332
  • Fluffy Rose VR178
  • Full Cover
  • Garden Ring VR104
  • Gold Rose VR115
  • Heather Rose VR437
  • Helene VR431
  • Imperial Blue Dresden
  • Jeanette
  • Jeanette VR119
  • Little Louise VR390
  • Liza VR351
  • Maude VR108
  • Meadow Goldenrod VR135
  • Meadow Goldenrod VR175
  • Meadow Goldenrod VR411
  • Medieval Rose VR441
  • Moss Rose JJ59
  • Nosegay VR423
  • Oak Dale
  • Odds and Ends
  • Olivia
  • Patrician VR124
  • Petit Point CP95
  • Pink Moss Rose VR269
  • Red Beauty
  • Red Line VR158
  • Red Pig
  • Red Poppy
  • Rose Melody VR109
  • Shirley
  • Silver Rose VR124
  • Silver Scroll VR172
  • Snow
  • South of France VR387
  • Spanish Wall
  • Specialty Bowls
  • Springtime W245
  • Spring Wreath CAC186
  • Stylized Poppy
  • Three Daisy
  • Three Daisy VR421
  • Tulips in Basket VR386
  • Tulips in Basket VR412
  • Turkey
  • Unidentified 2
  • Water Lily VR398
  • Wayside VR437
  • Wedgwood VR456
  • Wildflower
  • Wings
  • Woodland
  • Woodland Beauty
Certain information from Blossoming of the Virginia Rose, The Dish, Summer, 2012 by Darlene Nossaman

Below are all Virginia Rose auctions, conveniently sorted by those ending soonest. Feel free to bookmark this convenient view, which displays the first 200 auctions at one glance.

HOMER LAUGHLIN Virginia Rose * Vintage 1941 Oval Serving Platter B41N8 * 11 1/2 HOMER LAUGHLIN Virginia Rose * Vintage 1941 Oval Serving Platter B41N8 * 11 1/2" 0 $9.99 47m
Homer Laughlin Silver Patrician Virginia Rose Creamer K 48 N 8 VTG Homer Laughlin Silver Patrician Virginia Rose Creamer K 48 N 8 VTG $10.00 2h 12m
VINTAGE HOMER LAUGHLIN Virginia Rose 9 VINTAGE HOMER LAUGHLIN Virginia Rose 9" oval Serving Dish Bowl $20.00 3h 17m
Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Complete China Set Holiday Table Wedding Keepsake Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Complete China Set Holiday Table Wedding Keepsake $1,850.00 4h 8m
Homer Laughlin VIRGINIA ROSE MOSS ROSE *11 1/2 Homer Laughlin VIRGINIA ROSE MOSS ROSE *11 1/2" OVAL PLATTER *B67N8* $11.90 4h 44m
Vintage Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Gold Pattern Cups and Saucers Set of 4 Vintage Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Gold Pattern Cups and Saucers Set of 4 $21.99 5h 18m
Vintage Bread & Butter Plate Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Shape Golden Rose 1948 Vintage Bread & Butter Plate Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Shape Golden Rose 1948 $4.99 5h 40m
Vintage Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose USA J40N8 - Oval Serving Plate Platter Vintage Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose USA J40N8 - Oval Serving Plate Platter $9.95 7h 29m
Homer Laughlin 11 1/2 Homer Laughlin 11 1/2" x 8 3/4" Oval Serving Platter D49N8 Virginia Rose Patter $25.00 7h 34m
Vintage Homer Laughlin Oval Serving Platter / Virginia Rose Pattern Vintage Homer Laughlin Oval Serving Platter / Virginia Rose Pattern $12.85 9h 9m
Homer Laughlin Bowls Virginia Rose Shape Pattern??? Homer Laughlin Bowls Virginia Rose Shape Pattern??? 0 $6.95 14h 26m
2 pcs Vintage Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Oval Platters Serving Plates 11 2 pcs Vintage Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Oval Platters Serving Plates 11" USA $10.00 15h 23m
Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Fluffy Rose Cranberry Oatmeal Bowl Crazing Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Fluffy Rose Cranberry Oatmeal Bowl Crazing 0 $14.99 16h 41m
VINTAGE...HOMER LAUGHLIN..... VINTAGE...HOMER LAUGHLIN....."VIRGINIA ROSE".....GRAVY BOAT...U.S.A. $19.99 18h 52m
Vintage Homer Laughlin VIRGINIA ROSE SALT & PEPPER SHAKERS Vintage Homer Laughlin VIRGINIA ROSE SALT & PEPPER SHAKERS $99.95 19h 16m
Vintage Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Oval Vegetable or Serving Bowl 9 Vintage Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Oval Vegetable or Serving Bowl 9" USA $10.00 19h 42m
Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Spring Wreath Platter - 11 1/2 Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Spring Wreath Platter - 11 1/2" x 8 1/2" EXCELLENT $12.00 20h 39m
Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Serving Platter, silver Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Serving Platter, silver $8.99 20h 54m
Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Dinner Plates Cups & Saucers Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Dinner Plates Cups & Saucers $23.59 22h 12m
HOMER LAUGHLIN WILD ROSE Virginia Rose  LUNCHEON PLATES 4 HOMER LAUGHLIN WILD ROSE Virginia Rose LUNCHEON PLATES 4 $39.99 22h 25m
VINTAGE G 36 N 8 HOMER LAUGHLIN VIRGINIA ROSE FLUFFY CREAMER SILVER TRIM VINTAGE G 36 N 8 HOMER LAUGHLIN VIRGINIA ROSE FLUFFY CREAMER SILVER TRIM $5.55 22h 31m
1933 Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose China #K33N8  1933 Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose China #K33N8  $240.00 23h 42m
Vintage Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Dinner Plate & Dessert Bowl Vintage Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Dinner Plate & Dessert Bowl 0 $2.60 1d 1h 55m
1940s Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Creamer F51N8 1940s Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Creamer F51N8 $23.99 1d 2h 9m
Vintage 1949 Homer Laughlin Creamer Virginia Rose Pattern Made in USA Vintage 1949 Homer Laughlin Creamer Virginia Rose Pattern Made in USA $25.00 1d 2h 13m
Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose casserole dish Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose casserole dish $55.00 1d 2h 21m
Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Creamer/Small Gravy Boat Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Creamer/Small Gravy Boat 0 $15.00 1d 2h 23m
Vintage Homer Laughlin Beautiful Sugar Bowl (Virginia Rose) very nice condition Vintage Homer Laughlin Beautiful Sugar Bowl (Virginia Rose) very nice condition $16.00 1d 2h 25m
Virginia Rose (HLC) Salt & Pepper Virginia Rose (HLC) Salt & Pepper $60.00 1d 3h 37m
Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Patrician Sugar & Creamer Set Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Patrician Sugar & Creamer Set $18.00 1d 4h 5m
G46N8 Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Platter  - bold Floral pattern G46N8 Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Platter - bold Floral pattern $9.55 1d 4h 34m
Vintage Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose 10 Vintage Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose 10" China Dinner Plate (4) $49.95 1d 5h 15m
Vintage Homer Laughlin virginia rose Bowl F56N8 Vintage Homer Laughlin virginia rose Bowl F56N8 0 $8.99 1d 5h 39m
Homer laughlin virginia rose serving bowl Homer laughlin virginia rose serving bowl $4.00 1d 8h 2m
Homer Laughlin VIRGINIA ROSE 13 1/4 Homer Laughlin VIRGINIA ROSE 13 1/4" Platter with Platinum Trim ~ circa 1934 $21.99 1d 15h 47m
2 pc Set Vintage Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Dessert Berry Bowls 5-1/2 2 pc Set Vintage Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Dessert Berry Bowls 5-1/2" USA $5.00 1d 18h 20m
2 Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Colonial Kitchen Fireplace Hearth Bread Plates 2 Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Colonial Kitchen Fireplace Hearth Bread Plates $12.99 1d 19h 7m
7 Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Colonial Kitchen Fireplace Hearth Soup Bowls EUC 7 Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Colonial Kitchen Fireplace Hearth Soup Bowls EUC $69.99 1d 19h 7m
2 Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Colonial Kitchen Fireplace Hearth Salad Plates 2 Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Colonial Kitchen Fireplace Hearth Salad Plates $14.99 1d 19h 7m
5 Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Colonial Kitchen Fireplace Hearth Dinner Plates 5 Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Colonial Kitchen Fireplace Hearth Dinner Plates $69.99 1d 19h 7m
Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Colonial Kitchen Fireplace Serving Vegetable Bowl Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Colonial Kitchen Fireplace Serving Vegetable Bowl $29.99 1d 19h 7m
Vintage Homer Laughlin Silver Virginia Rose Patrician 6 Vintage Homer Laughlin Silver Virginia Rose Patrician 6" Saucers 0 $1.25 1d 19h 31m
Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Gravy Boat Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Gravy Boat 0 $8.99 1d 19h 31m
Homer Laughlin Virginia rose replacements Homer Laughlin Virginia rose replacements $50.00 1d 20h 2m
Vintage 1935 Homer Laughlin Serving Platter, Virginia Rose, Platinum, 15” x 11¼ Vintage 1935 Homer Laughlin Serving Platter, Virginia Rose, Platinum, 15” x 11¼ $44.00 1d 21h 45m
Vintage Homer Laughlin *Virginia Rose *B55 N8 *Oval Serving Bowl / Dish 9x2 Vintage Homer Laughlin *Virginia Rose *B55 N8 *Oval Serving Bowl / Dish 9x2" $18.99 1d 22h 41m
Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose~Vintage~ Gravy Boat~ Creamer & Tea Cup , “Nice” Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose~Vintage~ Gravy Boat~ Creamer & Tea Cup , “Nice” $8.00 1d 23h 12m
BOWL, SERVING, VIRGINIA ROSE, ROUND--7 1/2 BOWL, SERVING, VIRGINIA ROSE, ROUND--7 1/2" SCARCE, VERY NICE.(HOMER-L.) 0 $25.05 2d 51m
homer laughlin virginia rose china set homer laughlin virginia rose china set 6 $27.07 2d 2h 10m
Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose  Moss Rose 6 1/4 in Bread Plate Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Moss Rose 6 1/4 in Bread Plate $4.50 2d 3h 50m
Homer Laughlin 8 1/2” Virginia Rose Pattern B50N8 Serving Bowl Homer Laughlin 8 1/2” Virginia Rose Pattern B50N8 Serving Bowl $6.00 2d 4h 4m
VINTAGE HOMER LAUGHLIN VIRGINIA ROSE OVAL PLATTER M43N8 VINTAGE HOMER LAUGHLIN VIRGINIA ROSE OVAL PLATTER M43N8 $15.99 2d 5h 26m
Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Patrician Silver Sugar & Creamer Set Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Patrician Silver Sugar & Creamer Set $12.99 2d 7h 3m
2 Vintage Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Egg Cups a Pair w/ Platinum Rims Bouquet 2 Vintage Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Egg Cups a Pair w/ Platinum Rims Bouquet $86.00 2d 7h 8m
Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose  Creamer  Creamy White Floral Good Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Creamer Creamy White Floral Good $2.97 2d 8h 29m
11ANTIQUE HOMER LAUGHLIN  VIRGINIA ROSE USA IRONSTONE SAUCERS SALAD PLATES CUPS 11ANTIQUE HOMER LAUGHLIN VIRGINIA ROSE USA IRONSTONE SAUCERS SALAD PLATES CUPS $9.99 2d 12h 33m
Vintage Homer Laughline Springtime Virginia Rose Marigold Gravy Boat Vintage Homer Laughline Springtime Virginia Rose Marigold Gravy Boat 0 $7.50 2d 16h 58m
Vintage  2 Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Dessert Berry Fruit Bowls 6 Vintage 2 Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Dessert Berry Fruit Bowls 6" Gold Trim $6.95 2d 18h 16m
34 Virginia Rose Homer Laughlin Dinner ware Plates Bowls Side Sugar Creamer Cups 34 Virginia Rose Homer Laughlin Dinner ware Plates Bowls Side Sugar Creamer Cups 0 $49.00 2d 19h 54m
Vintage Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Bowl H41N8 Pink & Gold Serving Piece Vintage Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Bowl H41N8 Pink & Gold Serving Piece $5.00 2d 20h 58m
VIRGINIA ROSE Homer Laughlin Round VEGETABLE  BOWL 8 1/2 VIRGINIA ROSE Homer Laughlin Round VEGETABLE BOWL 8 1/2" Platinum Trim L47N8 $11.99 2d 22h 18m
1940's Homer Laughlin China  JJ59 Virginia Rose Set Platinum GRAVY PLATTER PLATE 1940's Homer Laughlin China JJ59 Virginia Rose Set Platinum GRAVY PLATTER PLATE 0 $14.99 2d 22h 23m
VIRGINIA ROSE Homer Laughlin  2 Oval VEGETABLE BOWLS 9 1/4 VIRGINIA ROSE Homer Laughlin 2 Oval VEGETABLE BOWLS 9 1/4" Platinum Trim L47N8 $14.99 2d 22h 26m
Set of 4 Homer Laughlin VIRGINIA ROSE Bread/Dessert Plates 6 Set of 4 Homer Laughlin VIRGINIA ROSE Bread/Dessert Plates 6" Platinum Trim GUC $9.99 2d 22h 45m
Vintage Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose 9 Inch Plate Vintage Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose 9 Inch Plate $15.99 2d 22h 46m
Set of 2 Homer Laughlin VIRGINIA ROSE Bread/Dessert Plates 6 Set of 2 Homer Laughlin VIRGINIA ROSE Bread/Dessert Plates 6" Platinum Trim GUC $4.99 2d 22h 47m
Set of 4 Homer Laughlin VIRGINIA ROSE  Bowls 5 3/4 Set of 4 Homer Laughlin VIRGINIA ROSE Bowls 5 3/4" Platinum Trim 47N8 GUC $11.99 2d 22h 54m
Set of 2 Homer Laughlin VIRGINIA ROSE  Bowls 5 3/4 Set of 2 Homer Laughlin VIRGINIA ROSE Bowls 5 3/4" Platinum Trim 47N8 GUC $5.99 2d 22h 55m
(4) Homer Laughlin VIRGINIA ROSE Berry~Ice Cream Bowls 5 1/4 (4) Homer Laughlin VIRGINIA ROSE Berry~Ice Cream Bowls 5 1/4" Platinum Trim GUC $9.99 2d 23h 5m
(4) Homer Laughlin VIRGINIA ROSE Berry~Ice Cream Bowls 5 1/4 (4) Homer Laughlin VIRGINIA ROSE Berry~Ice Cream Bowls 5 1/4" Platinum Trim $9.99 2d 23h 7m
Homer Laughlin VIRGINIA ROSE Berry~Ice Cream Bowl 5 1/4 Homer Laughlin VIRGINIA ROSE Berry~Ice Cream Bowl 5 1/4" Platinum Trim $2.99 2d 23h 9m
HOMER LAUGHLIN  VIRGINIA ROSE USA E27 N8 sugar bowlwith lid  cream gold trim HOMER LAUGHLIN VIRGINIA ROSE USA E27 N8 sugar bowlwith lid cream gold trim $20.00 3d 1h 5m
VINTAGE HOMER LAUGHLIN VIRGINIA ROSE PLATTER J42N8 USA EUC VINTAGE HOMER LAUGHLIN VIRGINIA ROSE PLATTER J42N8 USA EUC $34.99 3d 1h 22m
Homer Laughlin- Virginia Rose- Serving Dish 9 1/4 inches Homer Laughlin- Virginia Rose- Serving Dish 9 1/4 inches $26.94 3d 1h 49m
Antique Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Pattern Porcelain Creamer H49N8 USA 6 Antique Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Pattern Porcelain Creamer H49N8 USA 6" Vint $24.99 3d 3h 1m
Homer Laughlin VIRGINIA ROSE set of 4,  9 Homer Laughlin VIRGINIA ROSE set of 4, 9" DINNER? PLATES gold rim flowers $18.00 3d 4h 16m
Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose D52N8   25 PCS DINNER PLATES COFFEE ETC Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose D52N8 25 PCS DINNER PLATES COFFEE ETC 0 $1.00 3d 4h 23m
Sugar & Creamer Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose F41 N8 C41 N8 USA Mid Century Sugar & Creamer Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose F41 N8 C41 N8 USA Mid Century 0 $14.00 3d 4h 31m
Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose~Vintage~ Gravy Boat~A58N8 Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose~Vintage~ Gravy Boat~A58N8 $10.34 3d 4h 56m
Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose 11 1/2 Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose 11 1/2" X 8 3/4" Platter $10.00 3d 5h 27m
HOMER LAUGHLIN  VIRGINIA ROSE PLATES   THIS IS FOR 1 PLATE   5 AVAILABLE HOMER LAUGHLIN  VIRGINIA ROSE PLATES   THIS IS FOR 1 PLATE   5 AVAILABLE $6.90 3d 5h 40m
VTG Homer Laughlin VIRGINIA ROSE 8 Dessert  Plates 1940’s  J 48 N8 Flowers USA VTG Homer Laughlin VIRGINIA ROSE 8 Dessert Plates 1940’s J 48 N8 Flowers USA $46.00 3d 6h
Cunningham and Pickett Petipoint Cross Stitch Rimmed Soup Bowl Virginia Rose Cunningham and Pickett Petipoint Cross Stitch Rimmed Soup Bowl Virginia Rose $12.99 3d 6h 45m
HOMER LAUGHLIN Virginia Rose 9.25 & 6.75 HOMER LAUGHLIN Virginia Rose 9.25 & 6.75" Oval Serving Bowl Eggshell EUC $8.95 3d 7h 40m
2 HOMER LAUGHLIN Virginia Rose 10.5 & 11.5 2 HOMER LAUGHLIN Virginia Rose 10.5 & 11.5" Oval Serving Platter Eggshell EUC $20.95 3d 7h 40m
Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose 8.5” Serving Bowl Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose 8.5” Serving Bowl $7.00 3d 8h
Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose USA 6” Saucer Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose USA 6” Saucer $3.99 3d 10h 21m
Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Dresden Blue Cereal Bowls 7 1/4 Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Dresden Blue Cereal Bowls 7 1/4" Set of 2 Excellent $6.39 3d 14h 43m
Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Dresden Blue Berry Fruit Bowls 6 Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Dresden Blue Berry Fruit Bowls 6" Set of 2 Nice $6.39 3d 14h 43m
TULIPS IN A BASKET Lot Of 3 HOMER LAUGHLIN Soup Bowls Virginia Rose 8.5”  Silver TULIPS IN A BASKET Lot Of 3 HOMER LAUGHLIN Soup Bowls Virginia Rose 8.5” Silver $12.00 3d 15h 31m
homer laughlin virginia rose china homer laughlin virginia rose china $7.00 3d 16h 7m
VINTAGE HOMER LAUGHLIN VIRGINIA ROSE 8-1/2 INCH DIA. AT RIM SERVING BOWL BOWLS VINTAGE HOMER LAUGHLIN VIRGINIA ROSE 8-1/2 INCH DIA. AT RIM SERVING BOWL BOWLS $15.19 3d 16h 56m
Set of 5 Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Silver Patrician 6 Set of 5 Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Silver Patrician 6" Dessert/Bread Plates $15.00 3d 17h 30m
Homer Laughlin PETIT POINT VIRGINIA ROSE 22 kt Gold Trim Bread Plate AS-IS Homer Laughlin PETIT POINT VIRGINIA ROSE 22 kt Gold Trim Bread Plate AS-IS $4.00 3d 17h 30m
Virginia Rose   (8 Pc. Set)   by  Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose (8 Pc. Set) by Homer Laughlin $26.00 3d 17h 47m
Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Large 15 inch Serving Platter Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Large 15 inch Serving Platter $10.00 3d 18h 2m
9 Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose pattern bread/dessert plates FREE SHIPPING 9 Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose pattern bread/dessert plates FREE SHIPPING $15.00 3d 19h 6m
Vintage Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Gravy Boat w Silver Trim Vintage Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Gravy Boat w Silver Trim $9.99 3d 19h 28m
Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose  Creamer  Homer Laughlin Virginia Rose Creamer $3.25 3d 19h 28m
VIRGINIA ROSE BY HOMER LAUGHLIN PLATTER  11 1/2 VIRGINIA ROSE BY HOMER LAUGHLIN PLATTER 11 1/2" 0 $10.00 3d 19h 46m

Texas Cooking is a proud member of the Homer Laughlin China Collectors Association If you are interested in collecting this great dinnerware, look into this great organization.

Fiesta® is a registered trademark of the Homer Laughlin China Company, Newell WV. This website and its pages are not owned by Homer Laughlin China Company. We do not pretend to officially represent the Homer Laughlin China Company. They are the official experts - not us! We are simply enthusiastic collectors and fans of the china.