Cooks Need To Know

Important cooking measurements, substitutions, and metrics that
Cooks Need to Know . . .
Your reference for Substitutions, Equivalent Measurements, and metric conversions for weight, volume and oven temperatures.

Handy Substitutions

If you Need . . .

You Can Use

1 cup self-rising flour 1 cup all-purpose flour plus 1 teaspoon baking powder and 1/2 teaspoon salt
1 cup cake flour 1 cup sifted all-purpose flour minus 2 tablespoons
1 cup all-purpose flour 1 cup cake flour plus 2 tablespoons
1 teaspoon baking powder 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar plus 1/4 teaspoon baking soda
1 teaspoon cornstarch or arrowroot 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour
1 tablespoon tapioca 1-1/2 tablespoons all-purpose flour
2 large eggs 3 small eggs
1 egg 2 egg yolks (for custard)
1 egg 2 egg yolks plus 1 tablespoon water (for cookies)
1 cup sour cream 1 tablespoon lemon juice plus evaporated milk to equal 1 cup
1 cup yogurt 1 cup buttermilk or sour milk
1 cup buttermilk or sour milk 1 tablespoon vinegar or lemon juice plus sweet milk to equal 1 cup
1 cup fresh milk 1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water
1 cup fresh milk 3 to 5 tablespoons nonfat dry milk powder in 1 cup water
1 cup honey 1-1/4 cups sugar plus 1/4 cup water
1 (1-ounce) square unsweetened chocolate 3 tablespoons cocoa plus 1 tablespoon butter or margarine
1 tablespoon chopped fresh herbs 1 teaspoon dried herbs or 1/4 teaspoon powdered herbs
1 teaspoon dry mustard 1 tablespoon prepared mustard
1 small clove of garlic 1/8 teaspoon garlic powder
1 teaspoon pumpkin pie spice 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon, 1/4 teaspoon ginger, 1/8 teaspoon allspice, 1/8 teaspoon nutmeg
1 teaspoon apple pie spice 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon, 1/4 teaspoon nutmeg, 1/8 teaspoon cardamom
1 teaspoon allspice 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon, 1/2 teaspoon ground cloves
2 cups cooked macaroni 1 cup uncooked macaroni
3 cups cooked rice 1 cup uncooked rice

Equivalent Measurements

This . . . Equals This
3 teaspoons 1 tablespoon
4 tablespoons 1/4 cup
5-1/3 tablespoons 1/3 cup
8 tablespoons 1/2 cup
16 tablespoons 1 cup
2 tablespoons (liquid) 1 ounce
1 cup 8 fluid ounces
2 cups 1 pint (16 fluid ounces)
4 cups 1 quart
4 quarts 1 gallon
1/8 cup 2 tablespoons
1/3 cup 5 tablespoons plus 1 teaspoon
2/3 cup 10 tablespoons plus 2 teaspoons
3/4 cup 12 tablespoons
1 pound butter or margarine 2 cups butter or margarine
1 stick butter or margarine 1/2 cup butter or margarine
1-pound box confectioners sugar 3-3/4 cups confectioners sugar

Weight Measurements

Standard U.S. Ounces Metric
1 ounce 1 30 grams
1/4 pound 4 125 grams
1/2 pound 8 250 grams
1 pound 16 500 grams
1-1/2 pounds 24 750 grams
2 pounds 32 1 kilogram (kg)
2-1/2 pounds 40 1.25 kilograms
3 pounds 48 1.5 kilograms

Volume Measurements

Standard U.S. Ounces Metric
1 tablespoon 1/2 15 milliliters
2 tablespoons 1 30 milliliters
3 tablespoons 1/1/2 45 milliliters
1/4 cup 2 60 milliliters
6 tablespoons 3 90 milliliters
1/2 cup 4 125 milliliters
1 cup 8 250 milliliters
1 pint (2 cups) 16 500 milliliters
4 cups (1 quart) 32 1 liter

Oven Temperature Conversions - Fahrenheit to Celsius

Fahrenheit Celsius
300 150
325 165
350 180
375 190
400 200
425 220
450 230

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